vedphoto | Determining the Boltzmann constant by Johnson noise

Experimental determination of the Boltzmann constant by Johnson noise 

Ved Chirayath
Stanford University Department of Physics, Stanford, California

Johnson noise, an electronic noise created by the thermal agitation of charge carriers in a conductor, is used to empirically determine the Boltzmann constant. Using a shielded set of resistors and a digital FFT spectrum analyzer, we report a value within one standard deviation of published values.